Union representation in the public sector
Percentage, 2010-2014 average
Right-to-work: Twenty-five states have right-to-work laws prohibiting provisions in collective bargaining agreements calling on workers to pay money to labor unions as a condition of employment.
Representation: Workers covered by a collective bargaining agreement.
Source: Data based on Union Membership and Coverage Database's analysis of labor force statistics from the Current Population Surveys (CPS).
THREE QUARTERS OF UNIONIZED PUBLIC SECTOR WORKERS ARE IN NON-RIGHT-TO-WORK STATES
Percentage of unionized public sector workers in right-to-work vs. non-right-to-work states, 2014
Union membership and representation
Public sector only
THE "AGENCY SHOP"
Most California public school teachers are members of the union but some elect not to join. The state’s “agency shop” law requires those who do not join the union to pay fees equivalent to union dues even though they are not members.
Sources: Bureau of Labor Statistics, Department of Labor; Union Membership and Coverage Database, B. Hirsch and D. Macpherson; Reuters
By Christine Chan, Matthew Weber and Lawrence Hurley | REUTERS GRAPHICS